Day 1 :
University of Wolverhampton, UK
Time : 9:00 - 9:30 AM
Marek M. Kowalczuk received his Ph.D. degree in 1984 from the Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, and D.Sc. degree in 1994 at the same University. He was a visiting lecturer at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, MA, U.S.A. in 1990 and Marie Curie EU fellow at the University of Bologna, Italy. Currently, he is professor at the University of Wolverhampton, UK and at the Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze, Poland. He is the author and co-author of over 130 scientific papers and a score of patents.
Biodegradable polymers play an important role in human life, increasingly irreplaceable one. Knowledge on the relationships between their structure, properties and function is essential for prospective applications of such materials in the areas safe for human health and environment. When the development of biodegradable polymers was in its infancy the most crucial features were concentrated on the effect of macromolecular architecture, new monomer systems, polymerization mechanisms and different polymerization techniques on final biodegradable properties. Significant efforts have been directed towards specific areas, such as mechanisms of biodegradation, biocompatibility, processing conditions and potential applications in medicine, protection of environment and agro chemistry. However, such aspects like bio-safety of biodegradable polymers or nano-safety of their composites were and still are frequently neglected. In the endeavor to safe biodegradable polymers mass spectrometry methods are of particular importance in (co)polymers analyses due to their high sensitivity, selectivity, specificity and speed. Examples of the mass spectrometry studies for sequencing of biodegradable (co)polymers with the use of multi-stage electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn) will be presented. The special emphasis will be given to the ESI-MSn applications in the synthesis of biodegradable copolyesters as well as ESI-MSn for identification of selected biodegradable polymers on the way of molecular labeling. The attempts to solve the difficult question regarding the molecular structure of biodegradable copolymers with relation to the specific area of applied research will be also discussed.
Wadsworth Center, USA
Time : 9:30 - 10:00 AM
Rogatsky is a senior faculty member at Albert Einstein College of Medicine (NY, Bronx) and director of mass spectrometry at Biomarker Analytical Resource Core as part of the Harold and Muriel Block Institute for Clinical and Translational Research at Einstein and Montefiore . He has worked in the field of chromatography more than 20 years. Since 2001 his work has been within the service of the field of clinical mass spectrometry. During last 10 years (from 2004) Dr Rogatsky published 25 scientific papers in per-reviewed journals (mostly as the first author) and presented over 50 posters and lectures. Currently Dr Rogatsky serve as the Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Chromatography and Separation Techniques (OMICS publishing group). Eduard Rogatsky completed his M.Sc (physical chemistry) in Belarus State University (former USSR) in 1990. In 1998 has completed PhD in bioanalytical chemistry (Bar-Ilan University, Israel). At the end of 1999 he started post-doctorate at Albert Einstein College of medicine and since 2001 joined faculty. Currently his holds a title of Research Associate professor of Medicine.
Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread clinical problem and has been associated with many adverse health outcomes. Analysis of Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol) and their major metabolites 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 has become a high priority topic in clinical analysis. Currently a variety of LC/MS methods have been developed to support vitamin D analysis. These LC/MS methods utilize different transitions, ionization modes, sample preparation strategies, mobile phases and columns. In LC/MS analysis of 25 OH Vitamin D, dehydration (water loss) is the major side reaction. Comparing acetonitrile to methanol, which are typically used as mobile phases for LC separation, acetonitrile does not support hydrogen bond formation; therefore, proton-induced water elimination in-source becomes a major side-reaction, especially given the low pH of the mobile phase and positive mode electrospray and APCI ionization. MeOH, in contrast, supports hydrogen bond formation with the 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 hydroxyl groups. This efficiently “shields” most of hydroxyl groups by hydrogen bonding, and protects against protonation and resultant water elimination. We found that quantitation of the 25(OH)D from its [M+H]+, “intact” precursor ion, is temperature invariant. In contrast, quantitation using the in-source dehydrated precursor (parent) ion, leads to increased sensitivity with a rise in temperature, due to its better ionization efficiency at higher temperatures. Since droplets evaporation region can vary with mass spectrometer hardware design, ratio between intact [M+H]+ and dehydrated precursor can be unpredictable. We also noticed that degree of dehydration is concentration-dependent. Chromatographic separation between analyte and its deuterated internal standard might cause different levels of analyte and internal standard dehydration and resulted in quantitative error.
Philip Morris International R&D, Switzerland
Keynote: Heterocyclic aromatic amines and their contribution to the bacterial mutagenicity of the particulate phase of cigarette smoke
Time : 10:00 - 10:30 AM
Regina Stabbert received her Ph.D. in chemistry in 1992 from the University of Cologne. She is Principal Scientist working in the team Product Stewardship at Philip Morris International, RRP and is a manager with more than twenty years of experience in cigarette smoke chemistry, toxicology and aerosol science. She has published more than 15 papers in peer-reviewed journals.
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) rank among the strongest known mutagens. Approximately 30 HAAs have been found in cooked foods (broiled, fried, and grilled) and several HAAs have been characterized as animal carcinogens. Nine HAAs have also been reported to be constituents of cigarette smoke (CS) raising concerns that HAAs might contribute significantly to the known carcinogenicity of CS. An improved method for the quantification of HAAs in the total particulate matter (TPM) of CS is reported allowing detection and quantification of 8 HAAs in a single run. The mutagenic potency of these HAAs and that of TPM from the reference cigarette 2R4F was determined in the Salmonella Reverse Mutation Assay (Ames Assay) with tester strain TA98 and a metabolic activation system. The 8 HAAs, when applied together in the Ames assay, showed a clear sub-additive response; that means that mixes of the 8 HAAs gave rise to responses that were distinctly below that expected under the assumption of additivity for the single HAAs. Likewise, the combination of HAAs and TPM, if at all, gave rise to a slight sub-additive response . In both cases, however, the sub-additive response in the Ames assay was observed at HAA doses that are far above the amounts found in CS. The contribution of the individual HAAs to the total mutagenic activity of TPM was calculated and experimentally confirmed to be approximately 1% of the total mutagenic activity. Thus, HAAs do not contribute significantly to the bacterial in vitro mutagenicity of TPM in CS.