University of Urbino, Italy
Achille Cappiello is a professor of Analytical Chemistry at the University of Urbino in Italy, He studied at the University of Rome La Sapienza and after a two-year appointment as Post Doctoral Associate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, supervised by Professor Klaus Biemann, he began to engage in the field of LC-MS. Professor Cappiello is the director of several projects dealing with LC-MS instrument development and design with some of the major manufacturers. He published more than 100 scientific articles with an international circulation including the top journals in the field such as “Analytical Chemistry” and “Mass Spectrometry Reviews”.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is renowned for its impressive identification potential especially when it is coupled to a separation technique such as liquid chromatography (LC-MS) or gas chromatography (GC-MS). Direct-EI LC-MS interface, developed in our lab, is a powerful technique that combines, in a single instrument, the identification advantages of library searchable, electron ionization (EI) spectra with the separation power of an LC column, without the drawbacks of matrix effects or the polarity limitations typical of electrospray ionization. Non target analyses are of increasing importance in food safety, environmental, forensic and many other applications where the complexity of the matrix is a troubling factor. The advantage of EI for tentative identification is unparalleled. Expansion of EI fragmentation to a wider variety of molecules in a liquid phase provides an attractive alternative to identification and offers a complementary technique to high-resolution/high-mass accuracy LC-MS instrumentation and atmospheric pressure techniques. The simple interfacing process make it compatible with any LC separation technique and with any solvent combination, including non-volatile buffers and UHPLC methods. The gas-phase ionization process and the negligible matrix effects allows direct injections of samples even without column separations. In this presentation, the basic principles of compound identification in various applications and the advantages offered by an MS/MS analyzer in combination to HPLC and UHPLC separations will be presented. New instrumental developments involving the use of ceramic coatings and membrane probes for additional sensitivity and flexibility will be also shown.