Day 1 :
University of Wolverhampton, UK
Time : 08:30- 08:55
Marek M. Kowalczuk received his Ph.D. degree in 1984 from the Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, and D.Sc. degree in 1994 at the same University. He was a visiting lecturer at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, MA, U.S.A. in 1990 and Marie Curie EU fellow at the University of Bologna, Italy. Currently, he is professor at the University of Wolverhampton, UK and at the Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze, Poland. He is the author and co-author of over 140 scientific papers and a score of patents.
Chemical modifications of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in order to introduce functional groups, that cannot be easily achieved by bioconversion processes, is a valuable challenge since chemically modified PHA can be utilized as multifunctional biomaterials. On the other hand, incorporation of bioactive compounds into the β-lactones structure may lead to (homo) and (co)oligoesters with a bioactive moiety covalently linked as pendent groups along an oligomer backbone. This synthetic strategy enables preparation of the natural PHA analogues with ibuprofen pendant groups, pesticide moieties and recently antioxidants used in cosmetics. Contemporary reports on the molecular level characterization of bioactive oligomers derived from natural PHA and their synthetic analogues, formed through anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of β-substituted β-lactones, will be presented. Mass spectrometry studies of such oligomers will be discussed. The undertaken approaches enable design of novel biodegradable and bioactive oligomers for diverse applications in medicine, cosmetic industry and agrichemistry.
New Mexico State University, USA
Keynote: Precision mass measurements by time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the laboratory and in space missions
Time : 08:55- 09:20
Hermann Wollnik is professor at the Universität Giessen, in Giessen, Germany and adjunct professor at the New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, NM, USA. He has published the popular book “optics of charged particles” and is author of 374 publications in refereed scientific journals with 5693 citations. In the late 1970s he has started time-of-flight mass spectrometry and used this technique for the precise mass determination of short-lived nuclei as well as for molecule identifications in space missions like the ROSETTA mission to a comet.
The masses of atomic and molecular ions have been studied successfully since more than 100 years with the highest mass resolving powers being reached by “Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance” (FTICR-MS) mass spectrometry and by “time-of-flight mass spectrometry” (TOF-MS). While FTICR-MS systems can reach very high mass resolving powers m/Δm. However, the required heavy usually superconducting magnets limit their use to special laboratories. TOF-MS systems on the other hand are built in most cases as lightweight systems and can very well be used for on-line applications in stationary or transportable laboratories and in extreme cases even in space crafts. The achievable mass resolving power in time-of-flight mass analyzers (TOF-MA) systems increases with the use of shorter and shorter ion packets as well as with longer and longer ion flight paths. Such long flight paths are often achieved by using the same path repeatedly for instance in sector field ion storage rings or in systems in which ions are reflected again and again between electrostatic ion mirrors. Such systems can reach mass resolving powers m/Δm of several 100,000 and probably soon even higher values, when better and better power supplies can be used. Examples of different TOF-MAs will be shown with applications to the mass identification of short-lived nuclei at heavy ion accelerators as well as for the analysis of molecular ions in chemistry laboratories and in spacecraft systems. Such TOF-MAs are often used as stand-alone systems. However, in increasingly many cases they are used in combination with mobility analyzers, which distinguish molecule ions by their shape.
National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Russia
Time : 9:20- 09:45
Alexander A. Sysoev - Doctor Physics & Mathematics Science, Professor Department "Molecular Physics", National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, Russian Federation. Member of the Presidium and the Council of the All-Russian mass spectrometric society. Inventor of USSR, Honorary Professor of Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, and Honorary Employee of High Professional Education of Russian Federation. Research interests: analytical chemistry, ionization processes, ion optics, and time-of-flight mass analyzers. Also there are chief developments: theory for multiturn time-of-flight mass analyzers; the laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer for elemental analysis; combined ion mobility spectrometer /time-of-flight mass spectrometer with axial symmetric field for analyses of explosive, drugs, pharmaceutical preparations. New Educational Technology by Imitation Professional Activity of students was developed and implemented in the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute. Such graduates as Alexander Makarov, Vyacheslav Artayev, Dmitry Bandura and many others are working in leading the mass spectral companies and laboratories.
The report examines the various trends in laser mass spectrometry for elemental analysis. The potential possibilities of laser ablation, laser ionization, ionization of gas-forming impurities are regarded. It analyzes the basic physical processes in during the generation of ions by the laser irradiation and conditions of adequately displaying the composition of the sample using the laser plasma. The new concept of implementation standardless elemental analysis by using a laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer is offered. The key provisions of the concept are both a complete ionization of the vaporized sample by laser pulse of a local volume and without a discriminatory transmission and detection of the ion packets of any element with the help of the mass analyzer. Discriminatory factors are analyzed at different stages of the ion separation. Different approaches of construction of analytical systems for measuring the ion composition by means of various TOF analyzers. The elemental analysis by laser ionization highlighted three main areas: 1) routine elemental analysis in various industrial technologies for production of solid materials where it is enough to have the resolution R = 500 - 800, the detection limit equals 0.1 - 1 ppm; 2) the elemental analysis of high-purity substances, where it is necessary resolution at the level of R~104, and the detection limit about hundreds of ppt; 3) trace element analysis of gas-forming, where it is necessary to have a detection limit in the concentrations at levels of ~10-7 - 10-8%, and the main problem is the high background of adsorbed gases at surface of samples. New principles of analytical systems of laser TOF mass spectrometers are disclosed. Their basis is the synthesis of the ion source and the TOF analyzer as a single separation unit, the rejection of the additional acceleration of ions in the source, the use of innovative analyzers with wedge-form reflectors of ions. Fundamental importance for standardless analysis is the formation of the analytical signal for each element, as the sum of the signals of singly and doubly charged ions for the total spread of ion by energies. Some technical solutions are also
University of Iceland, Iceland
Keynote: From cities of proteins to the only large-brain mass-societies: Is excessive brain power a hindrance in the emergence of modern human societies?
Time : 09:45- 10:10
Magnus S Magnusson, Research Professor. PhD in 1983, University of Copenhagen. Author of the T-pattern model focused on real-time organization of behavior and has co-directed DNA analysis. Numerous papers and invited talks at mathematical, neuroscience and proteomic conferences and at universities in Europe, USA and Japan. Deputy Director 1983-1988, Anthropology Laboratory, Museum of Natural History, Paris then repeatedly invited temporary Professor in psychology and ethology at the University of Paris (V, VIII & XIII). Since 1991, Founder and Director of the Human Behavior Laboratory, University of Iceland. Since 1995, he is in formalized collaboration between 24 universities based on “Magnusson’s analytical model” initiated at the Sorbonne, Paris.
Hundreds of millions of humans adhering to ancient texts, reject all "western" science, while scientifically educated modern humans seem to generally accept that Man descends not only from other animals, but also from the Big Bang, atoms, molecules and single cell organisms. Similarities of structure and function are evident between the social life styles of distantly related organisms such as social insects and modern humans. Moreover, self-similarity is also found such as between human cities and the cities of proteins, sometimes even called "Cell City" because of the striking resemblance. In a fractal universe, omnipresent self-similarity should probably not be a surprise and will here be empirically exemplified through a particular kind of dynamic (real-time) statistical self-similar (fractal) patterns, T-Patterns, found in interactions of humans and brain neurons, while resembling patterns on DNA and proteins. The self-similarity relating the cities of proteins and the human bodies (cities of cells) that are the citizens of human mass-societies, suggests that knowledge of life in the fundamental brain-less mass-societies of protein cities may provide essential ideas and insights for the understanding of the only and recent large-brain mass-societies; those of modern humans with large brains inherited from a recent small-group past. A possible new understanding of, among other, religion, is suggested as a means to reduce the discrepancy and deal with issues in mass-social emergence.